Link to PubMed
  \\  WebGuide
Searching for sound and accessible scientific information on internet is often a difficult task. The amount of data is huge and not always really informative. 

The main purpose of this web guide on congenital malformations is to provide essential information on the most common congenital anomalies, to represent a valid working tool for the clinicians and to be an important source of information for lay people (affected individuals, their families and the community) that want or “have to” deepen their knowledge on this matter.

The information provided in this web guide for each malformation is the result of a time consuming research carried out in Internet through the most important search engines available on the network.

All the web sites found for each congenital defect have been accurately analysed. 
For each malformation only the most 3 – 4 relevant sites have been selected by a Biologist (Rebecca Facchini) with deep experience on birth defects considering as a basic criteria their scientific and informative contents and readibility.

As a result, this web guide includes only few selected sites considered scientifically detailed and linguistically accessible to everybody.
However, this procedure does not exclude the presence on the network of other sites on congenital malformations as valuable and interesting that is worth to be visited.
Finally, in case you want to recommend some others sites you consider more interesting or underline the problems and limitations of those included in this web page, please send your advice by e-mail to centre@icbdsr.org.

ALPHABETIC ORDER
Agnesis or aplasia of lung

Anencephaly

Aniridia

Anophthalmos/
microphthalmos

Anorectal atresia/stenosis

Anotia/microtia
Atresia and stenosis of urethra and bladder neck

Bladder exstrophy

Cataract

Choanal atresia, bilateral

Cleft palate without cleft lip

Cleft lip with 
or without cleft palate

Coarctation of the aorta

Colomba of iridis

Congenital dislocation of hip

Congenital glaucoma/
hydrophthalmos

Congenital hydronephrosis 
Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve
Congenital mitral insufficiency
Congenital mitral stenosis
Congenital tricuspid atresia and stenosis 

Corneal opacity

Cystic kidney
Diaphragmatic hernia
Down syndrome
Ebstein's anomaly
Encephalocele 
Endocardial cushion defects 
Epispadias

Gastroschisis 

Holoprosencephaly

Hydrocephaly
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Hypospadias
Indeterminate sex
Limb reduction defects

Microcephaly

Oesophageal atresia/stenosis

Omphalocele 
Ostium secundum type atrial septal defect
Patent ductus arteriosus
Polydactyly, preaxial
Prune belly sequence
Renal agenesis
Small intestine atresia/stenosis
Spina bifida
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of great vessels
Trisomy 13
Trisomy 18

Undescended testis

Stenosis or stricture of lacrimal ducts
Tracheomalacia

Varus deformities of feet

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

ICD  ORDER 
Anencephaly
Spina bifida
Encephalocele 
Microcephaly
Hydrocephaly
Anophthalmos/
microphthalmos
Congenital glaucoma/
hydrophthalmos
Cataract
Corneal opacity
Aniridia
Colomba of iridis
Stenosis or stricture of lacrimal ducts
Anotia/microtia
Transposition of great vessels
Tetralogy of Fallot 
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Ostium secundum type atrial septal defect 
Endocardial cushion defects 
Congenital tricuspid atresia and stenosis 
Ebstein's anomaly
Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve 
Congenital mitral stenosis 
Congenital mitral insufficiency 
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Patent ductus arteriosus 
Coarctation of the aorta
Choanal atresia, bilateral
Tracheomalacia
Agenesis or aplasia of lung 
Cleft palate without cleft lip
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate 
Oesophageal atresia/stenosis 
Small intestine atresia/stenosis
Anorectal atresia/stenosis 
Undescended testis
Hypospadias
Epispadias
Indeterminate sex
Renal agenesis
Cystic kidney
Congenital hydronephrosis 
Bladder exstrophy 
Atresia and stenosis of urethra and bladder neck 
Congenital dislocation of hip
Varus deformities of feet
Limb reduction defects
Polydactyly, preaxial
Diaphragmatic hernia
Gastroschisis 
Omphalocele 
Prune belly sequence
Down syndrome
Trisomy 13
Trisomy 18

Agenesis or aplasia of lung  ^TOP
Agenesis or aplasia of lung: complete absence of a whole lung and its bronchus
In lung aplasia there is no lung tissue but a blind main bronchus is present.

http://www.vh.org/pediatric/provider/radio logy/PedsChest/02HypogeneticLung.html
This site provides authoritative medical information on atrial septal defects in order to educate patients 
and healthcare providers. The information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based on reliable sources.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclo paedia/Volume%20V%201/lung%20agenesis.asp
This is an excellent site for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a good explanation about 
lung agenesis or lung aplasia.


Anencephaly
^TOP
Anencephaly: a congenital malformation characterized by the total or partial absence of the cranial vault , the covering skin, and the brain missing or reduced to small mass(e). Include craniorachischisis. 
Include infants with iniencephaly and other neural tube defects as encephalocele or open spina bifida, when associated with anencephaly.


http://www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/001580.htm
It's a web-site for family members, friends, educators and medical professionals interested in sharing information and/or support for parents of children who have anencephaly.This site provides considerations, definition, causes, incidence and risk factors, maternal and infant symptoms, signs (like polidramnios) and tests (like amniocentesi and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein). 
All these information are carefully described.
There are also a lot of interesting considerations about treatment, prognosis, complications and prevention.

http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_anen.htm
The goal of this web-site is to help parents of anencephalic children feel connected to other people in similar situations and to provide access to current literature and research findings on the subject.
This web-site includes scientific information on specific diagnoses and how to learn more about this disease. 
Families will be linked with others for support, communications and information about anencephaly.

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/a51.html
This web-site contains a medical description for all families about anencephaly along with details on inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis. 
This information is followed by details of the related support networks: their activities, publications and services they provide to parents of children who have anencephaly.

http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic639.htm
The site provides background, pathophysiology, pattern of inheritance, causes, frequency of anencephaly in the US along with considerations about geographical variation in NTD rates considering race, sex and age. Medical care, consultation, type of diet, prevention, prognosis, complication, patient education and medical reference articles are also available.


Aniridia
^TOP

Aniridia: is a congenital, hereditary, bilateral, extreme form of iris hypoplasia that may be associated with other ocular defects. It describes an extreme form of iris hypoplasia in which the iris appears absent on superficial clinical examination.

http://www.aniridia.org/conditions/index.html
It is web site for family members and friends interested in sharing information and/or providing support to people with aniridia; it aims at increasing awareness on aniridia and improving the quality of information about this genetic disorder.
The site explains what aniridia is, its symptoms, different degrees of aniridia (bilateral aniridia, unilateral aniridia, partial aniridia, atypical aniridia) and its complications.

http://www.rnib.org.uk/info/aniridia.htm
This web site offers practical support and advice to anyone with a sight problem; here it is possible to find a lot of detailed information about aniridia.
In particular, the site explains what aniridia is, what causes it, if there are risk factors for aniridia, what the effects of aniridia are, what the genetic implications of aniridia are and what treatments for aniridia do exist.

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/a56.html
This web-site contains a medical description about aniridia together with details concerning inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis. 
Finally, information on the related support networks is also included: namely, activities, publications and services in supporting the parents of children afflicted by aniridia.

http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic43.htm
The site provides aniridia clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, causes, treatment (medical and surgical care), prevention, complications, prognosis and other problems correlated. Finally, six pictures about this disorder are also available.


Anophthalmos/microphthalmos ^TOP
Anophthalmos/microphthalmos: apparently absent or small eyes. Some normal adnexal elements and eyelids are usually present. In microphthalmia the corneal diameter is usually less than 10 mm and the antero posterior 
diameter of the globe is less than 20 mm.

http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic572.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers beginners, but not for family. It offers a scientific article on anophthalmos/microphthalmos with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including background, causes, frequency, mortality and morbidity, race, age, sex and correlated problems. Two pictures are also available.

http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/anoph/#1
This site provides material with the aim to help people looking for anophthalmia and microphthalmia general aspects. A great effort is made in order to guarantee that the available information is accessible to all. In particular, this site tries to explain what anophthalmia and microphthalmia are, their causes and how to treat them. 

http://www.macs.org.uk/detailed.html
This site offers support and information to parents also by putting them in touch with others in similar circumstances. Good definitions of the illnesses are provided and many information about the causes and the treatment of anophthalmia and microphthalmia given.

Anorectal atresia/stenosis ^TOP
Anorectal atresia/stenosis: it is a congenital malformation characterized by absence of continuity of the anorectal canal or of communication between rectum and anus, or narrowing of anal canal, with or without fistula to neighboring organs. 

http://www.chop.edu/consumer/your_child/condition _section_index.jsp?id=-8600
This site is maintained from a multi-discipline group specialized in problems connected to the prenatal development 
of the digestive tract. In addition, it clearly explains what anorectal malformation is, what causes it, how often it occurs, who is at risk of developing this disorder and how it is diagnosed. This page finally provides information about the treatment and the future problems for a baby born with anorectal malformation.

www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/001147.htm
It is a web-site for family members, friends, educators and medical professionals interested in sharing information and/or providing support for parents of children with anorectal atresia.
This site provides definitions, causes, incidence and risk factors, pictures, symptoms, signs, tests (abdominal X-ray and physical examination) and treatment.
Finally, it tries to describe the expectations of life and the complications (intestinal obstruction and bowel incontinence) for children who have anorectal atresia.

www.1uphealth.com/health/imperforate_anus.html
This site offers a brief description about anorectal atresia. It also provides anorectal atresia definition and alternative names, causes, incidence, risk factors, symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis (expectations) and complications.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VII/ANORECTAL%20ATRESIA.asp
This is a very interesting site for clinicians and others health care professionals. It offers a good explanation with a lot of images about anorectal atresia.


Anotia/microtia
^TOP
Anotia/microtia: a congenital malformation characterized by absent parts of the pinna (with or without atresia of the ear canal) commonly expressed in grades (I?IV) of which the extreme form (grade IV) is anotia, absence of pinna. 

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic3003.htm
Here a good article on microtia is addressed to medical professionals providing a scientific description of the disease along with specific information on the clinical aspects of the unilateral microtia and the bilateral one. Etiology, pathophysiology, frequency, physical aspects and problems, treatments with medical or surgical therapy both for unilateral microtia or bilateral microtia, complications and prognosis are also provided. Finally, many pictures and a rich bibliography are available.

http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/tbdmd/risk/risk13-ear.htm
This site offers a good article on microtia and anotia for medical professionals where he diseases are grouped into four different types according to degree of severity. There is a scientific description about etiology, embriology, prenatal diagnosis, mortality, epidemiology, prevalence and outcome on microtia/anotia. Finally, interesting nformation on demographic and reproductive factors like, geography, infant sex, parental age, race and consanguinity are also described very well.

http://www.microtia.net/english/Start.htm
This site gives general information on ear reconstruction both for families and health care providers with either a child or a patient with microtia. It also comprise a scientific definition and classification of microtia, incidence and possible causes, along with a hearing test aimed at evaluatingif microtia is unilateral or bilateral, the evaluation timing of surgery and surgical stages. It finally includes very good pictures.

Atresia and stenosis of urethra and bladder neck ^TOP
Atresia and stenosis of urethra and bladder neck: meatal stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body).

http://www.amershamhealth.com/ medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20IV%202/BLADDER%20NECK%20DYSFUNCTION.asp
http://www.amershamhealth.com/ medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20II/URINARY%20BLADDER%20NECK.asp
This is a excellent site for clinicians and other health care professionals. 
It offers a detailed explanation about bladder neck and its dysfunction.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001599.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material concerning stenosis of urethra; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information about stenosis describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis, complications and prevention. Illustrations are also available.

http://www.americanbaby.com/ab/ illness.jhtml;jsessionid=N0UETMAPATWH3QFIBQSB42WAVABBWIV0?
illnessid=/templatedata/ab/illness/data/10921.xml&page=0-375&_requestid=5084
It's a web site for expectant and new parents wanting to share information. The aim is to disseminate information and expertise on prenatal and family health, as well as baby's growth and development. It also includes material about congenital malformation like stenosis of urethra.


Bladder exstrophy
^TOP
Bladder exstrophy: it is a complex malformation characterised by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. Bladder opens in the ventral wall of the abdomen between the umbilicus and the symphysis pubis. It is often associated with epispadias and structural anomalies of the pubic bones.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002997.htm
This site offers information on bladder exstrophy repair: the information provided is appropriate, well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It also comprises indications, risks, and expectations after surgery and convalescence.

http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/test_procedure_operations/ bladder_exstrophy/index.html
This site offers a lot of material to patients and families living with bladder exstrophy. It gives information explaining how the urinary system works, what bladder exstrophy is, what features are associated with bladder exstrophy, how bladder exstrophy is diagnosed, what are the causes of bladder exstrophy, how common bladder exstrophy is.. 

http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/1892679682.htm
The site gives a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine with material organised systematically in order to ensure a rapid retrieval of information. The site provides a clinical reference guide for general practitioners and other health professionals and offers important information on bladder exstrophy treatment and urinary diversion procedures like ileal conduit and ureterosigmoidostomy.

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/b21.html
This web-site is addressed to families and contains a medical description on bladder exstrophy along with details on inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis. 
This information is followed by details on the related support networks: their activities, publications and services they provide to parents of children affected by bladder exstrophy.

Cataract ^TOP
Cataract: is a cloudy or opaque area in the normally transparent lens of the eye. As the opacity thickens, it prevents light rays from passing through the lens and focusing on the retina, the light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. Early lens changes or opacities may not disturb vision. But as the lens continues to change, several specific symptoms including blurred vision; sensitivity to light and glare; increased nearsightedness; or distorted images in either eye, may develop.


http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/cataract_facts.htm
This site provides material with the aim of helping people looking for cataract general aspects. A great effort is made in order to guarantee that the available information is accessible to all. In particular, this site wants to explain what cataract is and the different types of this disorder, its causes and symptoms and how to treat it. The site also describes how a cataract is removed and also what happens before, during and after surgery.

http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm? article_ID=ZZZSXEVUF4C&sub_cat=119
The aim of this web site is to provide information on what a cataract is, what causes cataract, how a cataract is detected, how fast a cataract does develop, how a cataract is treated, when surgery should be done, what to expect from cataract surgery. Finally, many related articles are comprised as follows: Can Age-Related Cataracts Be Prevented?, What You Need to Know About Cataracts?, Cataract Surgery Techniques. 

http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/ Mosby_factsheets/cataracts.html
This site explains what cataracts are, what the causes and risk factors for cataracts are, what the common symptoms and complications of cataracts are, how cataract is recognised, what the treatment for cataracts is, what happens during the operation and what the outcome of cataracts is.


Choanal atresia, bilateral
^TOP

Choanal atresia, bilateral: congenital obstruction (membraneous or osseous) of the posterior choana or choanae. 

http://www.emedicine.com/ent/topic330.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on choanal atresia with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, etiology, frequency, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods (like rhinogram, CT scan and a diagram illustrating the trans palatal correction of choanal atresia), surgical therapy and procedures, postoperative details and follow-up care. A rich bibliography is also available.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001642.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on choanal atresia; the material provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It also comprehends information about this disease such as symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like physical examination and x-rays), treatment, prognosis and complications like respiratory arrest.

http://www.childsdoc.org/fall98/choanal/choanal.asp
This web site furnishes a good definition of choanal atresia and provides information on embryology, diagnosis and management. It also includes many images on the developmental anatomy of the face and the nasal cavities, trans nasal endoscopic view of choanal atresia, axial CT scan demonstrating unilateral choanal atresia, intra-operative trans palatal exposure of the posterior choanae and trans palatal surgical repair of choanal atresia.

http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/diseases_conditions/ choanal_atresia/index.html
This site offers interesting information to patients living with choanal atresia. In particular, it presents the conditions produced by the disease and explains what the operation involves, what the risks of operation are and other general items of interest for mothers with children affected by choanal atresia. 

http://www.fpnotebook.com/NIC6.htm
This is a site for families that offers a good definition of choanal atresia and excellent information about pathophysiology, signs, diagnosis, management in newborn (either emergency or stabilisation) and surgical repair.


Cleft palate without cleft lip ^TOP
Cleft palate without cleft lip: a congenital malformation characterized by a closure defect of the hard and/or soft palate behind the foramen incisivum without cleft lip. 
Include submucous cleft palate. 
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: a congenital malformation characterized by partial or complete clefting of the upper lip, with or without clefting of the alveolar ridge or the hard palate.


http://www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/681_1210.asp
The aim of this web site is to provide information and direction to the general public and to health professionals and researchers. All clinical material is based both on scientific researches and on the collective experience made by practising physicians and by other health care providers. All the material is accurate and appropriate.
More precisely the site offers an explanation on cleft lip and cleft palate and tries to answer the followings: when do oral-facial clefts develop?, how common are cleft lip and cleft palate?, what are the causes of cleft lip/palate?, are the causes of isolated cleft palate different?, how do oral-facial clefts affect the face of a baby?, are oral-facial clefts more common in some families than others?, can oral-facial clefts be repaired?, what are the specific problems associated with oral-facial clefts?, what about feeding?, what about ear problems?, how is speech affected by clefts?, what about dental problems?, can oral-facial clefts be prevented?

http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/surgical/cleft_lip_palate.html
The objective of this web site consists in helping families and their children translating complex medical information into a easy-to-understand language for parents, kids, and youth. In addition, many articles present clear and explanatory information about cleft lip and palate, its diagnosis, specific characteristics, complications related to clefts, treating clefts, dental care and orthodontia and speech therapy.

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/pa/pa_cleft_hhg.htm
This site aims at providing a support to children affected by cleft lip/cleft palate. It also comprises a good definition about cleft lip or cleft palate, along with explanations concerning causes, treatment and problems associated with feeding, speech and hearing.

University of Virginia Health System, Children's Medical Centre
This web site includes four important sections: the first contains a good description about cleft lip and cleft palate and their occurrence (two photos are also available); the second offers an explanation on the possible cleft locations with a movie images and a description of the Normal Palate (one photo about a child with cleft palate is available); the third provides a family history in addition to information on environmental factors, the probability of having a baby with a cleft palate, the risks of having a baby with a cleft lip or palate and related prevention; finally, the fourth section offers a good description on the major goals of surgery, potential complications during surgery and what to expect after surgery. 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001051.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on cleft lip and illustrations on cleft lip repair with images about normal anatomy, indication and procedure; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based from good resources. It gives information on cleft lip or cleft palate describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis and complications.

http://www.cleft.ie/whatis.htm
The aim of this site is to provide support and information for parents of children affected by cleft lip and those directly affected by the condition through talking to new parents and providing advice on feeding, and ongoing medical care throughout the treatment.
The site gives information on incidence of clefts, treatment, genetics and embryo development.


Cleft lip with or without cleft palate
^TOP
Cleft lip with our without cleft palate: a congenital malformation characterized by partial or complete clefting of the upper lip, with or without clefting of the alveolar ridge or the hard palate. Exclude midline cleft of upper or lower lip and oblique facial fissure (going towards the eye).

http://www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/681_1210.asp
The aim of this web site is to provide information and direction to the general public and to health professionals and researchers. All clinical material is based both on scientific researches and on the collective experience made by practising physicians and by other health care providers. All the material is accurate and appropriate. More precisely 
the site offers an explanation on cleft lip and cleft palate and tries to answer the followings: when do oral-facial clefts develop?, how common are cleft lip and cleft palate?, what are the causes of cleft lip/palate?, are the causes of isolated cleft palate different?, how do oral-facial clefts affect the face of a baby?, are oral-facial clefts more common in some families than others?, can oral-facial clefts be repaired?, what are the specific problems associated with oral-facial clefts?, what about feeding?, what about ear problems?, how is speech affected by clefts?, what about dental problems?, can oral-facial clefts be prevented?

http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/surgical/cleft_lip_palate.html
The objective of this web site consists in helping families and their children translating complex medical information into a easy-to-understand language for parents, kids, and youth. In addition, many articles present clear and explanatory information about cleft lip and palate, its diagnosis, specific characteristics, complications related to clefts, treating clefts, dental care and orthodontia and speech therapy. 

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/pa/pa_cleft_hhg.htm

This site aims at providing a support to children affected by cleft lip/cleft palate. It also comprises a good definition about cleft lip or cleft palate, along with explanations concerning causes, treatment and problems associated with feeding, speech and hearing.


Coarctation of the aorta ^TOP
Coarctation of the aorta: it is an obstruction in the descending aorta, almost invariably at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/CV170.htm
This web-site is intended to aid primary care providers in their pursuit of optimal care, well-informed patients, and healthy families. The site offers a good definition on coarctation of the aorta and good information about epidemiology, associated conditions (Turner's Syndrome, Bicuspid aortic valves, Aortic Coarctation Syndrome), pathophysiology, etiology, signs and symptoms, radiology (like chest x-rays and echocardiogram) and surgical repair with indications and techniques. 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000191.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on coarctation of the aorta; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It gives information on this disease describing its symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like x-rays of the chest, ECG, echocardiography, doppler ultrasound, chest CT, MRI ), treatment, prognosis and complications. A good images of the coarctation of the aorta is available. 

http://www.thic.com/coarctation.htm
This site offers heart diagrams and various explanations on coarctation of the aorta.
The site is dedicated to education and research in the field of congenital and acquired heart disease both in children and young people. Clinical care includes the most recent and advanced technology.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/ anomalies/coarctation.htm
This site offers easily accessible information for patients and their families, and for medical professionals in cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also provides information about the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. Finally, itincludes a good explanation and describes diagnosis, treatments and treatments results with a good graphic summary and a beautiful flash movie on coarctation of the aorta.

http://www.heartpoint.com/congheartdx.html
This site has been created both to provide patients with a reliable source of information about heart disease and to understand the heart and heart disease like coarctation of the aorta

Coloboma of iridis ^TOP
Coloboma of iridis: Congenital cleft in some part of the eye (commonly the iris, but may also occur in the lid(s) or pigment epithelium and choroid.

http://www.rnib.org.uk/info/coloboma.htm
This web site offers practical support and advice to anyone with a sight problem; here it is possible to find a lot of detailed information about coloboma of iridis.
In particularl, the site wants to communicate what coloboma is, what causes it and what the effects of coloboma on vision are; it also provides other specific support services.

http://www.tsbvi.edu/Education/anomalies/coloboma.htm
This site offers a brief but interesting information on coloboma of iridis; it also provides a detailed description and explains coloboma treatment and its implications.

http://www.ssc.mhie.ac.uk/eyeconds/Colob.htm
The information contained in this web site is intended to be used primarily by parents, other members of the family and older children with visual impairment.
The text is simple and with a limited use of medical terms and jargon; it tries to explain what coloboma is, what causes it, how coloboma might affect a child's vision and how it is diagnosed.


Congenital dislocation of hip
^TOP
Congenital dislocation of hip: a malformation of the hip that is present at birth.

http://www.drhull.com/EncyMaster/H/hip_dysplasia.html
The purpose of this site is to give short, easily understood answers to common questions on congenital dislocation of hip by using simple and direct explanations. This site provides definition, causes and treatment about the congenital dislocation of hip.

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/c63.html
This web-site contains a medical description about congenital dislocation of hip together with details of inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis, if exist. 
This information is followed by details on the related support networks: their activities, publications and services they provide to parents of children who have this congenital disorder.

http://www.healthcentral.com/mhc/top/000971.cfm
In this site it is possible to find a lot of useful information about the important health issues of nowadays like congenital dislocation of hip. This site provides alternative names, definitions, causes, incidence and risk factors, prevention, signs and symptoms, treatment expectations (prognosis) and complications.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/ORT264.htm
This site is intended to support primary care providers performing optimal care, well-informed patients and healthy families. It offers appropriate definitions on congenital dislocation of hip and interesting information about epidemiology, pathophysiology, types of congenital hip dislocation, associated conditions (like congenital torticollis, breech presentation in utero, first degree relative with hip dysplasia history and clubfoot), signs and radiology and management.

Congenital glaucoma / hydrophtalmos ^TOP
Congenital glaucoma/hydrophtalmos: a condition of increased fluid pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure). 
This increased pressure damages the optic nerve causing partial vision loss, with blindness as a possible eventual outcome.


http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic138.htm
The site provides clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, causes, treatment (medical and surgical care), prevention, complications, prognosis and other related problems. Medical reference articles are also available.

http://www.glaucomaassociates.com/congenital-glaucoma.html
The aim of this web site is to gather and disseminate a lot of information in order to improve a wide knowledge about glaucoma.
More precisely, the site offers an explanation on congenital glaucoma and tries to answer the following: what is congenital glaucoma? how to recognize congenital glaucoma? how to treat congenital glaucoma? In addition, information on glaucoma medications (Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Sympathomimetic Alpha-Adrenergic Agonist) and surgical procedures (Trabeculectomy, Glaucoma Drainage Implants, Laser Iridotomy, Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT), Cyclophotocoagulation ) are also available.

http://www.wfubmc.edu/besthealth/ency/article/001620.htm
It is a web-site for family members, friends, educators and medical professionals interested in sharing information and/or providing support to people with glaucoma. This is a very interesting site that offers a good explanation about glaucoma. It provides definition, alternative names, causes, incidence, and risk factors, symptoms (acute, chronic and congenital), signs and tests (physical examination, intraocular pressure, visual field, visual acuity), treatment, prognosis and complications.


Congenital hydronephrosis ^TOP

Congenital hydronephrosis: aseptic dilatation of the whole or a part of the kidney. It is usually due to intermittent or partial obstruction to the outflow of urine.

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2747.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on congenital 
hydronephrosis with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, clinical history, causes, treatment (medical and surgical care), medications, complications and other problems to be considered. A wide bibliography is also available.

http://www.assomed.com/indusmed/surg/hydroneph.html
This site wants to provide brief but sufficient information about the disease and its treatment (hydronephrosis is included). It offers general information on unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and complications.


Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve ^TOP
Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve: is a heart valve disease in which the aortic valve weakens or balloons, preventing the valve from closing tightly. This leads to backwards flow of blood from the aorta (the largest blood vessel) into the left ventricle (the left lower chamber of the heart).

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000179.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on congenital aortic insufficiency; the material provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It also comprehends information about this disease such as symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (echocardiogram, Doppler ultrasound, aortic angiography), treatment, prognosis, complications (endocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary edema) and prevention.

http://www.ecureme.com/emyhealth/data/Aortic_Insufficiency.asp
This site is designed to help patients become familiar with medical terms. It gives information about diseases, treatments, diagnosed and many information aortic insufficiency in a simple way. It also includes definition, description about the symptoms, causes, explanation on how the diagnosis is carried out, and relative treatment.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/CV282.htm
T his site is intended to support primary care providers performing optimal care, well-informed patients and healthy families. It offers good definitions on aortic insufficiency and interesting information about epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes (chronic or acute) predisposing factors, symptoms, signs, radiology (echocardiogram) and monitoring. 

Congenital mitral insufficiency ^TOP
Congenital mitral insufficiency: is disorder in which the heart's mitral valve suddenly does not close properly, causing blood to leak (back-flow) into the left atrium (upper heart chamber) when the left ventricle (lower heart chamber) contracts.

http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic1464.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on mitral valve insufficiency with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including background, embryology and anatomy, pathophysiology, causes, diagnostic methods (chest radiography, echocardiography, electrocardiogram), treatment (surgical and medical care), medication, follow-up care and complications. A rich bibliography and graph are also available.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000176.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000177.htm
These site offer appropriate and authoritative information on congenital mitral regurgitation chronic (the first) and acute (the second); the material provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It also comprehends information about this disease such as symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (chest x-ray and echocardiogram), treatment, prognosis and complications (like endocarditis, heart failure, pulmonary emboli, stroke and arrhythmias).


Congenital mitral stenosis
^TOP
Congenital mitral stenosis: mitral stenosis is a narrowing or obstruction of the opening of the mitral valve, which separates the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. This prevents adequate blood flow between the left atrium (upper chamber) and ventricle (lower chamber).


http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000175.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on congenital mitral stenosis; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on this disease describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like chest x-rays, ECG, echocardiogram, doppler ultrasound), treatment, prognosis, complications (pulmonary edema, atrial fibrillation, stroke, emboli) and prevention. Fine illustrations are available.

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2517.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on congenital mitral stenosis with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, etiology, diagnostic methods, treatment (surgical and medical care), medication, follow-up care, diet and activity. A rich bibliography and images are also available.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/CV286.htm
This is a site for families that offers a good definition of congenital mitral stenosis and excellent information about pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, complications, diagnosis, management and surgical repair. 


Congenital tricuspid atresia and stenosis ^TOP
Congenital tricuspid atresia and stenosis: Tricuspid atresia is a type of congenital heart disease in which the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle fails to develop.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/ anomalies/tricuspid.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also presents the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. This site comprises a good explanation and describes diagnosis, signs, symptoms, treatments and treatments results. A fine graphic summary and a flash movie on congenital tricuspid atresia are also available.

http://www.childrenheartinstitute.org/educate/ defects/atresia1.htm
The aim of this web site is to help patients and their parents understand in plain language the heart problems. A simplified illustration of the structure and inner-workings of the heart are available. This site comprises a good explanation on how the heart works including how blood flows through a healthy heart and how the heart pumps and describes diagnosis, signs, symptoms about tricuspid valve atresia.


Corneal opacity
^TOP
Corneal opacity: disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.

http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/-919273436.htm
The web site offers a system designed to provide a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine with material organised systematically in order to ensure a rapid retrieval of information. The site provides a clinical reference guide for general practitioners and medical students; it may also be a useful reference resource for other health professionals.

Cystic kidney ^TOP
Cystic kidney: a congenital malformation characteried by multiple cysts in the kidney include infantile polycystic kidney, multicystic kidney, other forms of cystic kidney and unspecified cystic kidney. 

http://www.nephrologychannel.com/polycystic/
This web site offers an overview of polycistic kidney disease, including a description on autosomal dominant PKD 
and autosomal recessive PKD, types (both primary and secondary), incidence and prevalence, risk factors, causes, signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedure (CT scan, X-rays and ultrasound), treatment and prognosis.

http://www.ecureme.com/emyhealth/Pediatrics/ Cystic_Kidney_Disease.asp
This site aims at facilitating access to healthcare information on cystic kidney disease. 
Furtermore, complete information regarding conditions that involve the kidneys are also provided such as alternative names, description, symptoms, causes, diagnostic procedures, treatment and complications.

http://www.chkd.org/Urology/pkd.asp
It is a web-site for parents of children affected by polycystic kidney disease (PKD); the site tries to explain what PKD is, the different types of PKD (with their descriptions) and, finally, how and why polycystic kidney disease occurs.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency /article/000465.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on medullary cystic disease; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents this disease describing its symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, prognosis, complications and prevention. Good illustrations are available.

Diaphragmatic hernia ^TOP
Diaphragmatic hernia: a congenital malformation characterized by herniation into thehorax of abdominal contents through a defect of the diaphragm.Include total absence of the diaphragm. 

http://www.cherubs-cdh.org/
This is an interesting site for families and medical care providers for children and adults born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. It offers the possibility to research possible causes, better treatments and how to learn more about diaphragmatic hernia using the easiest terms as possible.
It provides scientific information on this congenital disease, including current research studies and publications from scientific and medical journals. This page includes contact information and links to patients support groups. 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/ article/001135.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on diaphragmatic hernia; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based on good resources. It also gives information on diaphragmatic hernia using fine illustrations and describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis and complications.
If you change the number of the article in this site (from 001135 to 002936), you can find the indications for a diaphragmatic hernia repair including the description about the operation, the risks, the expectations after surgery and convalescence.

http://www.chop.edu/consumer/your_child/ condition_section_index.jsp?id=-8605
This site is developed by a multi-discipline group specialized on the problems in prenatal development of the digestive tract. The site clearly explains what is a diaphragmatic hernia (using illustrations), what causes it, how often it occurs; who is at risk for developing this disease and how it is diagnosed. This page also provides information about the symptoms, the treatment and the future problems for a baby born with a diaphragmatic hernia.

Down syndrome ^TOP
Down syndrome: a congenital chromosomal malformation syndrome characterized by a well known pattern of minor and major anomalies and associated with excess chromosomal 21 material. Include trisomy mosaicism and translocations of chromosome 21.

http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/genetic/down_syndrome.html
The purpose of this web site is to help families and their children translating complex medical information into easy-to-understand language for parents, kids, and youth. Many articles are present and provide clear, explanatory information about Down syndrome, along with diagnosis and characteristics, development, prevention and prenatal testing, early intervention and inclusion. Finally a skills table is also introduced.

http://www.dsa-uk.com/
This site has been conceived both to support people with Down's syndrome, their families and carers and to provide information for people with a professional interest. The aim is to improve general understanding and awareness about the syndrome condition and also to defend the rights of people affected by it. 

http://www.ndss.org/
The objectives of this web site are the following: wide spreading exact information on Down syndrome, increasing public awareness about it and discovering its main causes through research, education and advocacy. The site offers informative materials; encourages and supports the activities of parent support groups; sponsors conferences and scientific symposia and finally undertakes advocacy efforts in order to increase awareness and acceptance of people with Down syndrome. 

http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs4txt.htm
The site provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues. It is addressed to all people: families, educators and students. Concerning down syndrome, it provides a good definition and an explanation about incidence, characteristics, educational and employment implications. Finally, it offers information about particular disabilities, parent materials, specific organisations and professional associations. 

Ebstein ' s anomaly ^TOP
Ebstein's anomaly: in Ebstein's anomaly the tricuspid valve is downwardly displaced into the right ventricle. The posterior and septal leaflets are plastered down into the right ventricular wall. Above the attachment of the valve the ventricle becomes dilated and thin walled - atrialized. Often there is also an atrial septal defect.

http://www.heartcenteronline.com/myheartdr /common/artprn_rev.cfm?filename=&ARTID=414#
The aim of this site is to provide cardiovascular patients and their families with the tools they need to better understand the complex nature of heart-related conditions, treatments and preventive care. More precisely the site offers a comprehensive explanation about Ebstein's anomaly with illustrations, animations and interactive resources. Finally, it describes Ebstein's anomaly signs and symptoms, explains how Ebstein's anomaly is diagnosed and treated and tells if Ebstein's anomaly can be prevented.

http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/60424198.htm
The site gives a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine with material organised systematically in order to ensure a rapid retrieval of information. The site also includes a clinical reference guide for general practitioners and other health professionals and offers important information on Ebstein's anomaly.

http://www.chdinfo.com/aa/aa083197.htm
The aim of this web-site is to disseminate information to families, individuals and professionals involved in the Ebstein's anomaly field.
The site offers a simple scientific article on Ebstein's anomaly. In addition, it tries to answer many questions concerning Ebstein's anomaly as follows: what is Ebstein's anomaly? what happens in Ebstein's anomaly? what other problems may occur in Ebstein's anomaly? why should Ebstein's anomaly be corrected? what is done during operation for Ebstein's anomaly? what are the other operations used for Ebstein's anomaly? what to do for the rhythm disturbances in Ebstein's anomaly? how good are the results of operations in Ebstein's anomaly?


Encephalocele ^TOP
Encephalocele: a congenital malformation characterized by herniation of the brain and/or meninges through a defect in the skull. Encephalocele is not counted when present with spina bifida.

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/ENCEPHAL.HTM
This site is very useful for people just getting into their studies on encephalocele. It also provides general information about the disease such as definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, investigations and management.

http://radiology.uchc.edu/code/1564.htm
This is a good jumping off point for scientific information on encephalocele; it offers general information on etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, general gross description, general microscopic description and clinical correlation with encephalocele. A good image on encephalocele is also included.

http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic246.htm
This is a beginners site for doctors and researchers, but not for family. It offers a scientific article on encephalocele with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, anatomy, diagnostic methods (x-ray, cat scan, MRI, ultrasonography, nuclear medicine and angiography) and special concerns. A lot of images are also available.

Endocardial cushion defects ^TOP
Endocardial cushion defects: endocardial cushion defects cover a spectrum of abnormalities including ostium primum ASDs, VSDs, and malformed tricuspid and mitral valves. A cleft in the septal mitral leaflet may be present. The haemodynamic effects of the anomaly are variable but will include volume overload of the left side of the heart due to mitral regurgitation and the presence of the VSD.

http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic670.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on endocardial cushion defects with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, causes, diagnostic methods (chest radiography, echocardiography, MRI, electrocardiogram), treatment (surgical and medical care), medication, follow-up care and complications. A rich bibliography and images are also available.

http://www.heartcenteronline.com/AV_Septal_Defect.html
The aim of this site is to provide cardiovascular patients and their families with the tools they need to better understand the complex nature of heart-related conditions, treatments and preventive care. More precisely the site offers a comprehensive explanation about endocardial cushion defect with illustrations, animations and interactive resources. Finally, it describes signs and symptoms of endocardial cushion defects, explains how endocardial cushion defect is diagnosed and treated and tells if endocardial cushion defect can be prevented.


Epispadias ^TOP
Epispadias: it is a congenital malformation characterised by the opening of the urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis. Not counted when part of exstrophy of the bladder.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001285.htm
This site offers interesting material on epispadias; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It describes episapdias symptoms (both in males and females), causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like CBC, serum electrolytes, pelvic X-rays, intravenous pyelogram (IVP) and ultrasound of the uro-genital system), treatment (surgical repair), prognosis and complications like urinary incontinence.

1) http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic704.htm
2) http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic528.htm

The first site presents a highly technical medical article, with photos of infants before surgical correction. It gives a scientific description of epispadias with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, physical aspects, causes, lab studies (basic metabolic panel), imaging studies (renal ultrasound, spinal ultrasound etc.), treatment like surgical care, complications, prognosis and who to consult. A rich bibliography is also available.
The second site presents very fine drawings and photos about urogenital reconstruction.


Gastroschisis
^TOP
Gastroschisis: a congenital malformation characterized by visceral herniation. Through an abdominal wall defect lateral to an intact umbilical cord and not covered by a membrane. 

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000992.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on gastroschisis; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based from good resources. It gives information on gastroschisis using good illustrations and describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis and complications.

http://fetalsurgery.chop.edu/gastroschisis.shtml
This is a great site that offers a brief but good description and photos about gastroschisis. You can find gastroschisis definition with a image about fetal ultrasound showing bowel protruding from abdominal wall defect In the section of treatment, two photos about a newborn baby with gastroschisis and after immediate repair are available. 

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1642.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for family. It offers a scientific description on gastroschisis with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, physical aspects, causes, lab studies (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), imaging studies (fetal sonography), treatment like medical care or surgical care , type of diet and activity, complications and prognosis. A lot of photos and a rich bibliography are available.

Holoprosencephaly ^TOP

Holoprosencephaly/Arhinencephaly: a congenital malformation of the brain, characterised by various degrees of incomplete lobation of the brain hemispheres. Olfactory nerve tract may be absent. Holoprosencephaly includes cyclopia, ethmocephaly, cebocephaly, and premaxillary agenesis.

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/h47.html
This web-site contains a medical description for all families about holoprosencephaly along with items on inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis. 
This information is followed by details on the related support networks: their activities, publications and services they provide to parents of children affected by holoprosencephaly.

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/HOLOPROS.HTM
The purpose of this web-site is to provide information on various pediatric disorders including holoprosencephaly. The site also defines the disorder, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features (alobar, semilobar and lobar holoprosencephaly, complications like endocrine abnormalities), types of investigation (imaging studies: CT/MRI), genetic counselling and prognosis.

http://www.stanford.edu/group/hpe/about/
The goal of this site is to evaluate and treat the largest number of patients afflicted by holoprosencephaly and to support their families in order to improve lives and overcome this disorder. The site will also serve as a vehicle to collect clinical information to be shared with other researchers,; to improve direct contacts among families with the same problem and to allow families to receive information regarding advances in the diagnostic procedures. This web-site describes what holoprosencephaly is and the four types of this disorder (alobar, semi-lobar, lobar and middle interhemispheric variant); what causes holoprosencephaly and how common this defect is. A parent support group information area is also available. 

http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/hpe-overview/
It is a Internet site for physicians, other healthcare providers and researchers wanting to widespread information, current scientific discoveries, current treatment options and advances in diagnostic procedures. In particular, the site provides description about the disease characteristics, the subtypes of holoprosencephaly, the clinical manifestations commonly observed in children afflicted by the disease, diagnosis, prevalence, causes, management and risk for family members.

http://www.neonatology.org/syllabus/holoprosencephaly.html
This web-site presents good but brief information on holoprosencephaly. This site provides description, clinical aspects, incidence, etiology and details about when the disorder onsets.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VI%201/HOLOPROSENCEPHALY.asp
This is an excellent site for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a good explanation about three holoprosencephaly subcategories (alobar, semilobar and lobar) with four MR images on the semilobar holoprosencephaly and two on the lobar form.

http://esynopsis.uchc.edu/S436.htm
The site offers a scientific description on holoprosencephaly with information about etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, general gross and microscopic description along with clinical correlation. Two photos on semilobar holoprosencephaly and cyclops are also available.


Hydrocephaly ^TOP
Hydrocephaly: a congenital malformation characterized by dilatation of the cerebral vetricles, not associated with a primary brain atrophy, with or without enlargement of the head, and diagnosed at birth. Not counted when present with encephalocele or spina bifida.

http://www.ifglobal.org/spina_bifida/spina_introduction.php
The aim of this web-site is to disseminate information and expertise to families, individuals, professionals involved in the hydrocephalus field. It is designed to improve the quality of life of people with hydrocephalus and to decrease the prevalence of this congenital malformation by primary prevention.
A good introduction, a good explanation about this disease and a good description about the composition of nervous system (the central nervous system, the spine and the neural tube) are also given.
Finally, this site explains what hydrocephalus is and its causes; how it is treated and why it happens, what the shunt is and possible complications; finally, what the complications of hydrocephalus are.

http://www.asbah.org/
In this site many of the problems and difficulties associated with hydrocephalus are discussed. This site describes the hydrocephalus condition with an explanation about the composition of the nervous system and also tries to explain when hydrocephalus occurs. The aims are to provide information for parents; to improve awareness of hydrocephalus and to promote the primary prevention of neural tube defects.

http://www.spinabifida.org/Spina Bifida.htm
In this web-site there is a wealth of good information about hydrocephalus enriched with fine drawings. It is designed to discuss many of the problems and difficulties associated with hydrocephalus and to consider all the problems related with this condition.

http://www.hydrocephalus.org
The objectives is to assemble and disseminate information about hydrocephalus; to facilitate a communication among affected families and individuals; to understand what hydrocephalus is and what kind and forms of hydrocephalus exist. Some hydrocephalus statistics data are also given.

http://www.nhfonline.org
The aim of this web-site is to provide support, education and advocacy for individuals, families, professionals and also to increase public awareness and knowledge about hydrocephalus.
There are many information about the signs, the causes and the treatment of hydrocephalus. Finally, there is a good description about shunt and why it is necessary in patient affected by hydrocephalus.

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome ^TOP
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a cardiac defect with a hypoplastic left ventricle, associated with aortic and/or mitral valve atresia, with or without other cardiac defect.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001106.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on epispadias; the information provided is appropriate, well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on this syndrome describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like ECG, X-rays of the chest and echocardiogram), treatment, prognosis and complications.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/ anomalies/hlhs.htm
This site provides patients, their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on cardiac diseases, defects, disorders, and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also gives information about the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. This site has a good explanations and describes signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and treatments results. Survival rates with a good graphic summary and a beautiful flash movie on hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its surgical repair are available.

http://www.thic.com/hypoleft.htm
This web site contains many explanations and medical descriptions about hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It is dedicated to education and research in the field of congenital heart disease both in children and young people. Clinical care includes the latest and the most advanced technology.

Hypospadias ^TOP
Hypospadias: a congenital malformation characterised by the opening of the urethra on the ventral side of the penis, distally to the sulcus. Includes penile, scrotal, and perineal hypospadias. 

http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic1136.htm
This site offers medical professionals a good article on hypospadias. The article includes a scientific description about the disease along with information on the clinical aspects of the hypospadias including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, physical aspects, causes, treatments with surgical care, complications and prognosis. Many pictures and a rich bibliography are available.

http://www.urologychannel.com/pediatric/hypospadias.html
This is a web-site that clearly explains what hyposapadias is. It offers accurate information regarding urologic conditions, including an overview, signs and symptoms, risk factors and causes, incidence and prevalence, diagnostic procedures, treatment options, surgical complications and prognosis.
Finally, the site allows people who have similar health interests to get in touch.

Indeterminate sex ^TOP
Indeterminate sex: genital ambiguity at birth that does not readily allow for phenotypic sex determination. Include male or female true or pseudohermaphroditism.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001669.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on hermaphroditism; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on accurate sources. It also describes hermaphroditism by using alternative names, giving a good definition and detailing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (chromosome analysis, hormone levels, endoscopic examinations and so on), treatment, prognosis and complications.

http://www.1uphealth.com/health/hermaphroditism.html
This web-site provides comprehensive information on hermaphroditism dealing with topics such as causes, incidence, risk factors, symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, tests, signs, treatment, prognosis, expectations, complications, and support groups.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume %20IV%202/pseudohermaphroditism.asp
This is a excellent site for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a good but brief explanation about pseudohermaphroditism (both male and female).


Limb reduction defects ^TOP
Limb reduction defects: a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence or severe hypoplasia of skeletal structures of the limbs. Include femoral hypoplasia.

#http://www.limbdifferences.org/
The goal of this web site is to provide a comprehensive resource to the families and friends of children with limb differences. The aim is to offer the practical information as well as the emotional support to make the journey into the world of limb differences very easy.

http://www.steps-charity.org.uk/home.html
The aims of this site is to help families of children with lower limb abnormalities; the site provides support to families and provides vital services such as a help line, annual events, publications and so on.

http://www.mfbrc.com/LimbDifferences.htm
This web site offers good information for children and teens from birth to age 21 years with hand, foot and limb differences. The primary goal is to help the children and adolescents with limb differences become as independent as possible in all areas of development. A multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive management for the child and family as their needs. 


Microcephaly
^TOP
Microcephaly: a congenitally small cranium, defined by an occipito?frontal circumference (OFC) 3 standard deviation below the age? and sex?appropriate distribution curves. [If using a different definition or cut?off point (e.g., 2 standard deviations), report but specify criteria].

http://www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/003272.htm
It's a web-site for family members, friends, educators and medical professionals interested in sharing information and/or support for parents of children who have microcephaly.
This site provides definitions, considerations, common causes (primary and secondary causes) along with some drawings about infant with a normal head size and those affected by microcephaly.

http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_microc.htm
The goal of this web-site is to help parents of microcephalic children feel connected to other people in similar situations and to provide access to current literature and research findings on the subject.
Families will be linked with others for support, communications and information about microcephaly.
This web-site includes scientific information on specific diagnoses, who to contact and how to learn more about microcephaly. 

http://www.cafamily.org.uk/Direct/m27.html
This web-site contains a medical description about microcephaly together with details of inheritance patterns and pre-natal diagnosis. 
This information is followed by details on the related support networks: their activities, publications and services they provide to parents of children who have microcephaly.

http://www.medfriendly.com/microcephaly.html
It is an user-friendly web-site where all the information about microcephaly is presented in a easy way. In particular, this site tries to explain what microcephaly is; how small the head has to be to qualify as microcephaly; when microcephaly develops and what causes it; if microcephaly can be inherited by parents; what are the brains and intelligence like of people with microcephaly; what are the facial features of the affected people and which is the life expectancy of people with microcephaly.

Oesophageal atresia/stenosis ^TOP
Oesophageal atresia/stenosis: a congenital malformation characterized by absence of continuity or narrowing of the esophagus, with or without tracheal fistula.
Include tracheoesophageal fistula with or without mention of atresia or stenosis of oesophagus.


http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/diseases_conditions /
oesophageal_atresia_and_tracheo/index.html

The aim of the site is to define the scientific, epidemiological and clinical basis of childhood diseases, in particularl oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula, and to promote child health internationally. It provides information about the condition of the malformation also explaining what the operation involves and what the risk of operation are. Other general information addressed to the mothers with children affected by oesophageal atresia is introduced.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VII/oesophageal%20atresia.asp
This is a excellent site for clinicians and others health care professionals. It offers a good explanation and radiograph of children with oesophageal atresia and also a link to tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VII/ OESOPHAGEAL%20STENOSIS.asp

This site offers information and images on oesophageal stenosis.

http://www.disability.vic.gov.au/dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/ pages/ Birth_defects_of_the_digestive_tract?OpenDocument
The aim of this site is to provide people with a disability, their families and carers with access to online disability related information. It comprises various information and a good definition on this malformation including an explanation about treatment for oesophageal and long term difficulties for the child. Finally, explanations about tracheo-oesophageal fistula and its treatment are also available.

http://www.tofs.org.uk/
This web-site contains a medical description for all families about tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) and oesophageal atresia (OA) along with details on surgery for TOF and OA, enriched by very fine images. Good explanations about problems like swallowing, stricture, reflux, long gap OA, tube feeding and respiratory complications are also provided. Fine images are available.

Omphalocele ^TOP
Omphalocele: a congenital malformation characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through the umbilical insertion and covered by a membrane which may or may not be intact.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000994.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on omphalocele; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based from good resources. It gives information on omphalocele using good illustrations and describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis and complications.

http://fetalsurgery.chop.edu/omphalocele.shtml
This is a great site that offers good information and photos about omphalocele. Here you can find omphalocele definition with a photo about a newborn baby with giant omphalocele containing liver, evaluation with fetal ultrasound and treatment options. 

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1642.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for family. It offers a scientific description on omphalocele with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, physical aspects, causes, lab studies (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), imaging studies (fetal sonography), treatment like medical care or surgical care , type of diet and activity, complications and prognosis. A lot of photos and a rich bibliography are available.

http://www.geeps.org/exomphalos.htm
This is a great site for families of children with omphalocele and to connect them to others in similar situation. In this site there is a brief but clear description about the disease and the treatment. It offers the possibility to give an overall idea of what to expect like diagnosis of the condition, termination of pregnancy, what happens after the baby is born, what happens after the operation, how to feed the baby and the eventual outcome.
There is also a section with a lot of photos to give people an idea of what may happen before, during and after the birth of a baby with omphalocele.


Ostium secundum type atrial septal defect
^TOP
Ostium secundum type atrial septal defect: is an abnormally large opening in the atrial septum at the site of the foramen ovale and the ostium secundum.

http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic1686.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on atrial septal defect with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including background, embryology, anatomy, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, causes, related problems, diagnostic methods (echocardiogram, MRI), treatment (surgical and medical care), medication, follow-up care, prognosis and complications. A rich bibliography is also available.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VII/atrial%20septal%20defect.asp
This is an excellent site for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a good explanation about atrial septal defect.

http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/-402259967.htm
The site gives a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine with material organised systematically in order to ensure a rapid retrieval of information. The site also includes a clinical reference guide for general practitioners and other health professionals and offers important information on atrial septal defect.

http://www.vh.org/pediatric/provider/surgery/SurgicalCHD/ASD/
This site provides authoritative medical information on atrial septal defect (ASD) in order to educate patients and healthcare providers. The information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on ASD describing anatomy and types of ASD, cause and heredity and methods of ASD closure (surgical and catheter based closure).


Patent ductus arteriosus ^TOP
Patent ductus arteriosus: is the persistence of a normal fetal structure between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. Persistence of this fetal structure beyond 10 days of life is considered abnormal.

http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic358.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on patent ductus arteriosus with information concerning the clinical aspects of the disease including background, pathophysiology, frequency, mortality and morbidity, causes, related problems, diagnostic methods (chest X ray, echocardiography, MRI, radionuclide angiography, electrocardiogram), treatment (surgical and medical care), medication, follow-up care, prognosis and complications. A rich bibliography is also available.

http://www.heartpoint.com/congpda.html
This site has been created to provide patients with a source of information about heart disease; and to enhance the understanding of the heart mechanism and heart diseases like patent ductus arteriosus.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/anomalies/pda.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also presents the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. This site comprises a good explanation and describes diagnosis, signs, symptoms, treatments and treatments results. A fine graphic summary and a flash movie on patent ductus arteriosus are also available.

http://www.childrenheartinstitute.org/educate/defects/ductus1.htm
The aim of this web site is to help patients and their parents understand in plain language the heart problems. A simplified illustration of the structure and inner-workings of the heart are available. This site comprises a good explanation on how the heart works including how blood flows through a healthy heart and how the heart pumps and describes diagnosis, signs, symptoms about patent ductus arteriosus.


Polydactyly, preaxial ^TOP
Polydactyly, preaxial: extra digit(s) on the radial side of the upper limb or the tibial side of the lower limb. It can affect the hand, the foot, or both.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003176.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on polydactyly; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It also furnishes definition, illustration, alternative names, considerations and common causes of polydactyly. 

http://www.emedicine.com/orthoped/topic544.htm
The site offers medical professionals a good article on polydactyly. . The site provides background, pathophysiology, problems, frequency, etiology and imaging studies like radiographs and MRI.
Treatment (including surgical therapy, preoperative/intraoperative/postoperative details and follow up care), complications, outcomes and prognosis are also available.

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20III%201/polydactyly.asp
This site is a source of information for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a brief but fine explanation about polydactyly with links to other congenital disorders polydactyly may be associated to, such as acrocephalosyndactyly, fanconis syndrome, Holt Oram syndrome and so on.

Prune belly sequence ^TOP
Prune belly sequence: a complex congenital malformation characterized by deficient abdominal muscle and urinary obstruction/distension. It can be caused by urethral obstruction secondary to posterior urethral valves or urethral atresia. In the affected fetus the deficiency of the abdominal muscle may not be evident. It can be associated with undescended testes, clubfoot, and limb deficiencies.

http://www.prunebelly.org/prune2.html
The site provides support for people having Prune Belly, their families and friends, and for health care professionals who treat them. It provides definition, imaging, etiology and pathologies (abdominal musculature, urinary tract anomalies, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal).

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/PRUNEBEL.HTM
It is a web site for family members, friends, medical professionals and for all the people interested in prune belly sequence. This site contains definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathologies (abdominal musculature, urinary tract anomalies, cryptorchidism and other manifestations), clinical features, investigations and management.

http://www.mccg.org/childrenshealth/urology/pbs.asp
The aim of this web site is to enhance the health status by providing health education and widespreading information about prune belly syndrome. The site tries also to explain prune belly causes and its symptoms and finally describes diagnostic procedures -renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), intravenous pyelogram (IVP)- and treatment for prune belly syndrome.

http://rarediseases.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm? site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.emedicine.com%2Fmed%2Ftopic3055.htm
This is a site for medical professionals and researchers, but not for family. It offers a scientific article on prune belly syndrome with information on the clinical aspects of the disease including pathophysiology, etiology, frequency, treatment (both medical and surgical therapy) and follow-up care, complications, outcomes and prognosis. A rich bibliography is also available.

http://rarediseases.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2F
www.nlm.nih.gov%2Fmedlineplus%2Fency%2Farticle%2F001269.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on prune belly syndrome; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It comprises information on this disease describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (fetal ultrasound, X-rays of the kidney and so on), treatment, prognosis and complications.


Renal agenesis ^TOP
Renal agenesis: a congenital malformation characterised by complete absence of kidneys bilaterally or severely dysplastic kidneys.

http://www.thefetus.net/page.php?id=540
This site is dedicated to fetal medicine (fetal development, prenatal screening, ultrasonography, fetoscopy, fetal surgery and maternal diseases or conditions that may affect the fetus).
It offers a scientific article on bilateral renal agenesis with disease definition and information about the incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis (two photos are available), genetic anomalies, differential diagnosis, associated anomalies and prognosis.

http://www.tdh.state.tx.us/tbdmd/risk/risk22-renal.htm
This web site is accessible to all users and its aim is to protect, promote and improve the health.
It offers a scientific article on renal agenesis with a fine description on the disease and information about demographic and reproductive factors, factors in lifestyle or environment and prevalence.

http://www.disability.vic.gov.au/ dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/pages/Birth_defects_of_the_urinary_system?OpenDocument
The aim of this site is to provide people with a disability, their families and carers with access to online disability related information. It presents definitions on bilateral renal agenesis, information on other abnormal characteristics that may be associated with bilateral renal agenesis, explanations about the causes and description on treatment for renal agenesis. 

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/Volume%20VII/agenesis%20renal.asp
This is a excellent site for clinicians and others health care professionals. It offers a good explanation with a lot images about renal agenesis.


Small intestine atresia/stenosis ^TOP
Small intestine atresia/stenosis: complete or partial occlusion of the lumen of a segment of the small intestine. 
It can involve a single area or multiples areas of the jejunum or ileum. 


http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/abdomen/diagnose/obstructions.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on intestinal atresia and stenosis also giving a good definition. It also presents types of intestinal atresia like pyloric atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and its four subtypes. Description about signs, symptoms, diagnostic procedures (abdominal X-ray, lower gastrointestinal (GI) series, upper GI series and ultrasonography), treatments and treatments results are also available. 

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/ Volume%20VII/atresia%20small%20intestine.asp
It is a Internet site for clinicians and other health care professionals. It offers a good explanation about small intestine atresia/stenosis with two radiographs.


Spina bifida ^TOP
Spina bifida: a family of congenital malformation defects in the closure of the spinal column characterized by herniation or exposure of the spinal cord and/or meninges through an incompletely closed spine. Include meningocele, meningomyelocele, myelocele, myelomeningocele, rachischisis.
Spina bifida is not counted when present with anencephaly. 


http://www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/001558.htm
It's a web-site for family members, friends, educators and medical professionals interested in sharing information and/or support for parents of children who have spina bifida.
This site provides definitions, causes, incidence and risk factors, photos, symptoms, signs, tests before birth (prenatal screening) and tests after birth (spine X-ray, spine CT or spine MRI).
This site tries to describe the expectations of life and the complications for children who have spina bifida; finally, it promotes the use of folic acid in order to educate the public about folic acid's role in preventing birth defects like spina bifida.

http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_microc.htm
The objective of this web-site is to help parents of children who have spina bifida feel connected to other people in similar situations and to provide access to current literature and research findings on the subject.
It includes scientific information on specific diagnoses; how to learn more about the disease; who to contact and where to go to chat with others affected by spina bifida.

http://www.ifglobal.org/spina_bifida/spina_introduction.php
The aim of this web-site is to disseminate information and expertise addressing in particular to families, individuals and professionals involved in the spina bifida field. The site with its information tries to improve the quality of life of people with spina bifida and to decrease the prevalence of this congenital malformation by primary prevention.
A good introduction, a good explanation about this disease and a good description about the composition of nervous system (the central nervous system, the spine and the neural tube) are given.
This site explains how and why spina bifida occurs describing the three main types of the disease (spina bifida occulta, spina bifida cystica-meningocele and spina bifida cystica-mielomeningocele); how to reduce the risk of having a baby with spina bifida; how to prevent the neural tube defects underlining the importance of vitamin supplementation, and finally how to live with spina bifida.

http://www.asbah.org/
In this site many of the problems and difficulties associated to spina bifida are discussed. This site describes the spina bifida condition with an explanation about the composition of the nervous system. It also tries to explain (with drawings) the three main types of spina bifida and when spina bifida occurs. The aims are to provide information, to improve awareness on spina bifida and to promote the primary prevention of neural tube defects.

http://www.spinabifida.org/Spina Bifida.htm
In this web-site there is a lot of good information about spina bifida enriched with fine drawings. It is designed to discuss many of the problems and difficulties associated with spina bifida and to consider all the problems related with spina bifida like continence, mobility, skin sensation, genetic and prevention. 

Stenosis or stricture of lacrimal duct ^TOP
Stenosis or stricture of lacrimal duct: a lacrimal duct obstruction is blockage of the tear duct, the thin channel that normally drains tears from the surface of the eye.

http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/lacrimal_duct_obstruction.html
This web site offers a comprehensive, well-integrated health and medical resource sdeveloped by healthcare professionals. The aim is to partner with consumers so that every individual and family can better manage their health. The site gives a good definition and description on lacrimal duct disorder also considering causes and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention and key terms. Specific books and periodicals are also suggested.

http://www.gpnotebook.co.uk/cache/-510001090.htm
The web site offers a system designed to provide a concise synopsis of the entire field of clinical medicine with material organised systematically in order to ensure a rapid retrieval of information. In addition the site provides a clinical reference guide for general practitioners and medical students; it may also be a useful reference resource for other health professionals. 


Tetralogy of Fallot ^TOP
Tetralogy of Fallot: a condition characterised by ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, infundibular pulmonary stenosis, and often right ventricular hypertrophy. 

http://www.thic.com/tetralogy.htm
This site offers heart diagrams and various explanations for parents on tetralogy of Fallot. The site is dedicated to education and research in the field of congenital and acquired heart disease both in children and young people. Clinical care includes the latest and the most advanced technology.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/anomalies/tof.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also presents the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. This site comprises a good explanation and describes diagnosis, treatments and treatments results with a fine graphic summary and a beautiful flash movie on tetralogy of Fallot.

http://www.heartpoint.com/congheartdx.html
This site has been created in order to have a source of useful information about heart disease and help in the understanding of the heart mechanism and heart disease like Tetralogy of Fallot.


Tracheomalacia ^TOP
Tracheomalacia : is a process characterized by flaccidity of the supporting tracheal cartilage, widening of the posterior membranous wall, and reduced anterior-posterior airway caliber. These factors cause tracheal collapse, especially during times of increased airflow such as coughing, crying, or feeding.

http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2976.htm
This is a site for doctors and researchers, but not for families. It offers a scientific article on tracheomalacia with information about the clinical aspects of the disease including the types of tracheomalacia based on histologic, endoscopic and clinical presentations. Many information on pathophysiology, frequency, etiology, indications, relevant anatomy, current recommendations for treatment of tracheomalacia and a lot of images are also available.

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/TRACHEOM.HTM
The purpose of this web-site is to provide information on various pediatric disorders including tracheomalacia. The site also defines the disorder, epidemiology, pathogenesis, types (both primary and secondary), clinical features (complications like respiratory distress, opisthotonus, thoracic deformities, laryngomalacia, absent ear cartilage), types of investigation (imaging studies like chest X-rays or esophagram and broncoscopy) and management (supportive and surgery).

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001084.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on tracheomalacia; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on this disease describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like chest x-rays and laryngoscopy), treatment, prognosis and complications. 

http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/Volume%20V%201/TRACHEOMALACIA.asp
This is an excellent web site for clinicians and others health care professionals. It offers a good explanation about tracheomalacia and also a link to the following: 
http://www.amershamhealth.com/medcyclopaedia/Volume%20VII/TRACHEOMALACIA.asp
That provides further information and images on tracheomalacia.


Transposition of great vessels ^TOP
Transposition of great vessels: a cardiac defect where the aorta exits from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle, with or without other cardiac defects. 
Include double outlet ventricle so called corrected transposition.


http://www.fpnotebook.com/CV169.htm
This site is intended to support primary care providers performing optimal care, well-informed patients and healthy families. It offers good definitions on transposition of great vessels and interesting information about epidemiology, pathophysiology, associated conditions (like ventricular septal defect and aortic coarctation), signs and diagnostics (electrocardiogram), radiology (chest X-rays), management (both initial and surgical), prognosis and complications associated with surgical repair.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001568.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on transposition of great vessels; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on this disease describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like chest x-rays, cardiac catheterisation, ECG, echocardiogram), prognosis, complications and prevention. Fine illustrations are available.

http://www.thic.com/transposition.htm
This site is addressed to parents and includes heart diagrams along with many explanations for parents on transposition of great vessels. 
The site is dedicated to education and research in the field of congenital and acquired heart disease both in children and young people. Clinical care includes the latest and the most advanced technology.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/anomalies/transposition.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information concerning cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also presents the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. Finally, it includes a good explanation and describes signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and treatments results presenting a fine graphic summary and a beautiful flash movie on transposition of great vessels.

http://www.heartpoint.com/congheartdx.html
This site has been created to provide patients with a source of information about heart disease; to help the understanding of the heart mechanism and heart disease like transposition of great vessels.

Trisomy 13 ^TOP
Trisomy 13: a congenital chromosomal malformation syndrome associated with extra chromosome 13 material. Include translocation and mosaic trisomy 13.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001660.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on trisomy 13; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It presents information on the disease describing its symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis, complications (like breathing difficulty, apnoea, vision problems and  prevention. 

http://www.trisomy.org/
This site supports parents having a child with a chromosome disorder; in addition it provides education to families and professionals interested in the care of these children. The aim is to improve the understanding of families involved in this matter and implement decisions surrounding the diagnosis and care in trisomy 13 and related chromosomal disorders. Support is provided during prenatal diagnosis and during the child's life.
The site offers information describing additional congenital anomalies (like ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, dextrocardia), common disorders in trisomy beyond 1 month of age (feeding difficulties, GE reflux, slow post natal growth, apnoea, hypertension, kidney defects, developmental disability, scoliosis) and routine follow up care of infants with trisomy 13.

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/TRISOMY1.HTM
This site is very useful for people just getting into their studies on trisomy 13. It also provides general information about the disease such as definition, epidemiology (incidence, risk factors etc), history, pathogenesis, clinical features (dismorphic features, organs malformations, partial trisomy) and investigations (imaging studies, EEG and karyotyping).

http://www.1uphealth.com/health/trisomy_13_info.html#definition
The site provides comprehensive information on trisomy 13 with topics such as the causes, incidence, risk factors, symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, signs, tests, treatment, prognosis, expectations, complications and support groups.

Trisomy 18 ^TOP
Trisomy 18: a congenital chromosomal malformation syndrome associated with extra chromosome 18. Include translocation and mosaic trisomy 18.

http://www.trisomy.org/html/trisomy_18_facts.htm
This site gives support to parents having a child with a chromosome disorder, and education to families and professionals interested in the care of these children. The aim is to improve the understanding of families involved in this matter and implement decisions around the diagnosis and care in trisomy 18 and related chromosomal disorders. Support is provided during prenatal diagnosis and the whole child life.

http://www.icondata.com/health/pedbase/files/TRISOMY2.HTM
This site is very useful for people just getting into their studies on trisomy 18. It also provides general information about the disease such as definition, epidemiology (incidence, risk factors etc), history, pathogenesis, clinical features (dismorphic features, organ malformations) and investigations (imaging studies, karyotyping).

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001661.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative material on trisomy 18; the information provided is well-organised, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It gives information on this disease describing symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests, treatment, prognosis, complications and prevention. 

http://www.1uphealth.com/health/trisomy_18_info.html#definition
The site provides comprehensive information on trisomy 18 with topics such as the causes, incidence, risk factors, symptoms, prevention, diagnosis, signs, tests, treatment, prognosis, expectations, complications and support groups.

Undescended testis ^TOP
Undescended testis: the terms undescended testis and cryptorchidism refer to a relatively common condition in which the testis has not descended into the scrotum and cannot be brought into the scrotum with external manipulation. The undescended testis may be located in the inguinal canal, within the abdominal cavity, or in an ectopic (unusual) location.

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/urinary/diagnose/undescended-testis.htm
This site provides easily accessible information for patients, for their families and for medical professionals. It also gives information about options available to diagnose and treat children's anomalies. This site gives a good explanations and describes what undescendend testis is, who at risk for undescendend testis is, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, surgical repair, complications associated with surgery and hormonal therapy.

http://www.pediatriconcall.com/forpatients/CommonChild/undescended_testis.asp
An internet site dedicated to the children, their parents and the doctors who deal with these children. The aim is to give what is best for the patient and how to approach a particular disease condition. In this site the patients can get an idea of the disease, ways to deal with it and in general be more aware of the facilities available and what to do and what not to do. The site provide information on undescended testis in children, a retractile testicle, how the testicles normally descend (with four images), when a testicle doesn't descend, treatment, surgery and situation after surgery.

www.pedisurgery.com/undescended%20testis.htm
This web site is devoted to the comprehensive care of newborns, infants and children with surgical problems like undescendend testis (cryptorchidism). It gives definition, description about the associated problems (fertility, cancer, inguinal hernia), explanation on why undescended testis occur, why it is a problem, how often it is seen, what the treatments are (hormones or surgery) and when therapy should be started.

http://medmic02.wnmeds.ac.nz/groups/rmo/inguino_scrotal/inguino_scrotal7.html
This site describe undescended testis like the usual cause of an empty scrotum; it offers a lot of information about undescended testis, its diagnosis and its treatment, how the position of the testis. 


Varus deformities of feet ^TOP
Clubfoot is a word used to describe certain ankle and foot abnormalities usually present at birth. The defect can be mild or severe and it can involve one foot or both. The medical term for clubfoot is equinovarus. There also are a number of other milder foot deformities that may appear similar.

http://www.doctorpolun.com/prob_deformities.php
This web site provides good description and information about foot problems, deformities and dysfunctions.
Featured topics include: Amniotic Band Syndrome, Bunions, Claw Toe, Clubfoot, Dysplasia, Enchondroma, Flat Feet, Gordon Syndrome, Haglund's Deformity, Hallux Rigidis, Hallux Limitus, Hallux Varus, Hammertoes, Jackson Weiss Syndrome, Mallet Toes, Metatarsalgia, Osteomyelitis, Overlapping, Underlapping Toes, Peroneal Tendon Dislocation/Dysfunction, Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction, Sesamoiditis, Spurs, Tarsal Coalition.

http://www.icomm.ca/geneinfo/clubfoot.htm
This web site offers information to the public concerning genetic disorders and birth defects. In particular, it explains what clubfoot is; how common clubfoot is; how clubfoot (equinovarus) affects a child; other common foot deformities; how clubfoot is diagnosed; how clubfoot and other foot deformities are treated; what causes clubfoot and other foot deformities, and how it can be prevented.


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) ^TOP
Ventricular septal defect (VSD): describes one or more holes in the muscular wall that separates the right and left ventricles of the heart -- the most common congenital (present from birth) heart defect.

http://www.heartpoint.com/congvsd.html
This site has been created to provide patients with a source of information about heart disease; and to enhance the understanding of the heart mechanism and heart diseases like ventricular septal defect (VSD).

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/anomalies/vsd.htm
This site provides patients and their families and medical professionals with easily accessible information on cardiac diseases, defects, disorders and problems that may affect a child's heart. It also presents the options available to diagnose and treat children's heart anomalies. This site comprises a good explanation and describes diagnosis, signs, symptoms, treatments and treatments results. A fine graphic summary and a flash movie on ventricular septal defect are also available.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001099.htm
This site offers appropriate and authoritative information on ventricular septal defect; the information provided is well-organized, easy to use and based on reliable sources. It gives information on this disease describing its symptoms, causes, incidence, risk factors, signs and tests (like x-rays of the chest, ECG, echocardiography), treatment, prognosis and complications. Images of the ventricular septal defect is also available.

http://www.fpnotebook.com/CV166.htm
This web-site is intended to aid primary care providers, well-informed patients, and healthy families. The site offers a good definition on ventricular septal defect and good information about epidemiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, radiology (like chest x-rays and echocardiogram) as well as medical and surgical management. 

http://www.med.umn.edu/radiology/cvrad/chd/vsd.html
This is a site for doctors and researchers. It illustrates some cases of ventricular septal defect. The site offers good information on incidence of disease, age at presentation, treatment, radiologic findings, links with others diseases, complications, and other associated congenital heart defects.